A thing may be known by more than one forms of names or appellations . In order for users to find and identify what they are looking for, a name, a topic, a work etc. librarians should work with authority files in order to maintain consistency in access points.
Authority work includes establishing controlled access points that ensure that anything that could be of interest to users can be retrieved under any of the forms of appellation under which they may happen to be known.
Construction of access points involves to a great extent tasks of name choice and identification of entities.
The access points that are created by museums and libraries for a specific notion, are probably unidentical given that different rules are followed. In order to support interoperability between information systems of various institutions, authority data must be interconnected between them through references to common URIs.
CRM and FRBRoo explicitly describe the discourse on relations between identifiers and the identified.
The ambiguity in the relationship between the identified and the identifier (appellation) that are used to refer to entities are a part of the historical reality to be described by the ontology. CRM distinguishes the nodes representing a real item from the nodes representing only the names of an item. Any E1 CRM Entity P1 is identified by (identifies) E41 Appellation. The values of appellations are instances of E62 String, rather than instances of E41 Appellation or its subclasses. However for simplification reasons, E62 string is omitted in the graphs of this tutorial.
CRM introduces E41 Appellation to serve as a mean of identification for any concept that is involved in the representation of the real world. E41 Appellation is a subclass of E90 Symbolic object, and of a E28 Conceptual object.Appellations can be names, titles, labels etc.
FRBRoo adopts from CRM the distinction between an entity from its appellation. It extends CRM’s E41 Appellation by specializing it in F12 Nomen (see FRSAD) which in turn is specialized in F13 Identifier (equal to E42 Identifier). F50 Controlled Access point is defined as a specific case (subclass) of F13 Identifier.
An authority record is a set of identification statements. We will use as example some metadata taken from a Library of Congress's name authority record for Nikos Kazantzakis. As we can see on the top left of the picture, the cataloguer has established “Kazantzaki’s Nikos, 1883-1957” as the personal name heading, which corresponds to the authorized controlled access point. In CRM context, the interpretation is that this controlled access point (F50) is the preferred identifier (P148) for this person (E21). The cataloguer also defines other variants access points for this person. For example “Kazantsakis, Nikos” written with s instead of z, or any other variant names, such as the name of the author in other languages etc. can be used to identify this person. Modeling this in FRBRoo we can also add the type of access point ( here: E55 Type :variant access point).The authority record also includes identification statements about other characteristics related to the particular author, such as the birth and death date and place, the pursuit, the language of writing, etc. Controlled access points, dates, place names etc. are all instances of E41 appellation.
We will now see in detail the process through which appellations and controlled access points are created and assigned in the authority records using the example of the appellation “Nikos Kazantzakis”. First of all, E41 Appellation is a subclass of CRM’s E90 Symbolic Object, which comprises any symbol or aggregation of symbols. As such it inherits the ability of decomposition into subgroups and fragments of signs. For example the appellation Nikos Kazantzakis consists of two symbolic objects, “Nikos” and “Kazantzakis”.
As seen, CRM and FRBRoo, being event-centric models, they focus on temporal entities, events, processes, activities etc. As for bibliographic description, FRBRoo introduce temporal entities in order to carry out tasks of authority control. It definesthe class F40 Identifier assignment, a temporal entity which is equal to CRM’s E15 Identifier assignment, as the activity during which an identifier, or a controlled access point, is allocated to a CRM/FRBRoo entity. The appellation, as a symbolic object, is used as constituent in order to assign the identifier. This way, the controlled access point consists of the appellation. The controlled access point "Kazantzakis, Nikos, 1883-1957", which is assigned to the person, consists of the appellation Nikos Kazantzakis.
The statement that a specific identifier or a controlled access point, in our example, “Kazantzakis, Nikos, 1883-1957” is the preferred (the established) one for an organization can be expressed by using the relationship E1 CRM Entity. P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of): E42 Identifier. It can better be expressed in a context independent form by assigning a suitable E55 Type, such as “preferred identifier assignment”, to the respective instance of E15 Identifier Assignment via the “P2 has type” property.
As mentioned previously, identifiers, comprising controlled access points, as specializations of appellations, are created by combining names-constituents (that is instances of E90 Symbolic object) which consist of signs and some of which are appellations in their own right. In our example the controlled access point also consists of the symbolic objects that concern the author’s birth and death date.
Last but not least, the activity of Identifier assignment serves to register the date and the actor which is quite important in case of reassignment of identifiers. F40 Identifier assignment is an activity that is carried out by bibliographic agency (F44), following certain cataloguing rules (F43).
In the same way, F40 Identifier Assignment is used in order to build identifiers for all the entities that we want to be identifiable and that will constitute access points to a bibliographic record, such as the name for a subject, the uniform title for a work or an expression etc. For example in order to uniquely identify Kazantzaki’s work “Christ recrucified” and construct a controlled access point for this work, we will use as constituents the controlled access point for the author’s name (Kazantzakis, Nikos, 1883-1957) and the nomen “Christ recrucified”. This nomen was certainly found on a specific expression of this work . This expression has the role of the representative source that was used in order to assign an identifier to this particular work. We will see later in detail how the assignment of identifiers to abstract concepts such as the concept of “work” is possible.
One of the difficulties a cataloguer meets often when constructing a controlled access point is the existence of alternative names that refer to the same thing, either a person, a place, a concept etc. These alternative appellations must be represented in order for the user/cataloguer to identify which is the person documented. For example we have seen in previous chapter the case of Stephen King who has signed some of his books under his real name and some of them under the pseudonym Richard Bachman. It is important then that the authority record for Stephen King includes controlled access points for both names, the established form of name for Stephen King and the variant name, Richard Bachman.
FRBRoo introduces F52 Name use activity as an activity that relates an appellation to a real world entity. It links the statements found in reference sources (instances of E31 Document) that attest to the use of a particular name for a particular entity. This corresponds to statements in the 670 MARC field. For example, an instance of F52 Name Use Activity using the name "Stephen King" is recorded on the cover of the book "Mr Mercedes" that confirms the use of this name for the author. Similarly "Richard Bachman" is recorded on the cover of the book “The regulators”.
Consequently we have two different reference sources (the two books) with two different appellation statements for the same person. A Knowledge organization system, such as an authority file, (eg. Library of Congress authorities) models these statements using the appropriate rules. The new statements that result within the authority record, are instances of F35 Nomen use statement.
These statements (F35 Nome use statement) record two identifiers for this author. The first “King, Stephen, 1947- is the preferred controlled access point (MARC field 100) and the second “Bachman, Richard” is a related controlled access point. (MARC field 500). These controlled access points (F35 Nomen Use Statements within the authority record) are justified (R32 warranted) by the two different F52 Name Use Activities, the use of the name Stephen King and the use of the name Richard Bachman.
FRBRoo analyses how and what evidence do we use in order to give an immaterial thing an identity. It makes explicit the process and the logic behind identifying things without a material nature such as works and expressions. When it comes to determining the preferred title for a work, bibliographic agencies can rely on external reference sources, or select one of the Expressions of the Work in one of its Manifestations, and record the title such as found on one of the Items of that Manifestation. In other words, the process through which we assign a preferred title to a Work, what is known as uniform title in cataloguing, includes the decision of selecting a “prototype”, a representative expression that will identify the work. This process is modeled in FRBROO through F42 Representative Expression Assignment, which concerns the choice, implicit or documented in the authority record, of one Expression of the Work. For example, selecting the publication expression of the first edition of Arthur Rimbaud’s work entitled “Une saison en enfer” as the representative expression for Rimbaud’s work “Une saison en enfer” and citing that publication as the source for the authority record created by a bibliographic agency.
Similarly, when we want to assign an identifier to an expression and if this expression was published several times under several distinct titles, bibliographic agencies will select the Manifestation that is deemed to best preserve the spirit of the ‘original’ Expression. This process is modelled in FRBRoo through F41 Representative Manifestation Assignment, an activity that concerns the choice, implicit or documented in the authority record, of one Manifestation that embodies the Expression selected through an instance of F42 Representative Expression assignment. For instance, I decided to assign the french title “Une saison en enfer” as the preferred title of the expression of Rimbaud's work because it is called that way on the manifestation that I considered that is representative for it. If I encounter a publication product that is entitled “A season in hell” and includes the English translation of Rimbaud’s work, I will not regard this manifestation as representative for the original expression since it is not the one that best preserves its spirit. On the contrary I would select a manifestation that includes the original text in french because it is the french expression that better preserves the spirit of the work it realised. So the english title will not be used for the construction of the preferred controlled access point for the work or expression, rather than for the construction of a variant access point.
This model does not correspond to any explicit library information. Rather, it describes an implicit process behind the appellation creation process: The very fact of composing an identifier for an instance of F2 Expression using the identifier of one particular manifestation makes the latter “representative” for the corresponding expression.